|PRESENT||A: He speaks|
N: He does not speak
Q: Does he speak?
|for routines, |
habits or facts
|always,usually,often, sometimes,never, every day, on Tuesdays|
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
|A: He is speaking|
N: He is not speaking
Q: Is he speaking?
|action taking place at the moment of speaking or only for a limited period of time/ future arrangements||now, right now, just now, at this moment|
|PAST||A: He spoke|
N: He did not speak
Q: Did he speak?
|for past actions ||yesterday, five minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, last century|
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)
|A: He was speaking|
N: He was not speaking
Q: Was he speaking?
|action going on at a certain time in the past or actions taking place at the same time/ action in the past that is interrupted by another action||while, as long as|
|A: He has spoken|
N: He has not spoken
Q: Has he spoken?
|action that began in the past but still continues/ finished action that has an influence on the present/ action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking||already, yet, ever, just, up to now|
|A: He has been speaking|
N: He has not been speaking
Q: Has he been speaking?
|putting emphasis on the duration (not the result) /action that recently stopped or is still going on/ finished action that influences the present||all day, for two years, since 1993, the whole week, how long?|
|A: He had spoken|
N: He had not spoken
Q: Had he spoken?
|action taking place before a certain time in the past (the past before the past)||already, just, never, yet, once, until that day|
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)
|A: He had been speaking|
N: He had not been speaking
Q: Had he been speaking?
|action taking place before a certain time in the past interchangeable with past perfect (emphasis on the duration) || for, since, all day, the whole day|
|FUTURE||A: He will speak|
N: He will not speak
Q: Will he speak?
|in a year, next …, tomorrow|
If-sentence type I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
I think, probably, perhaps
|A: He is going to speak|
N: He is not going to speak
Q: Is he going to speak?
|planned decision or conclusion with regard to the future||in one year, next week, tomorrow|
|A: He will be speaking|
N: He will not be speaking
Q: Will he be speaking?
|action that is going on at a certain time in the future action that is sure to happen in the near future||in one year, next week, tomorrow|
|A: He will have spoken|
N: He will not have spoken
Q: Will he have spoken?
|action that will be finished at a certain time in the future||by Monday, in a week|
|A: He will have been speaking|
N: He will not have been speaking
Q: Will he have been speaking?
|action taking place before a certain time in the future putting emphasis on the course of an action||for …, the last couple of hours, all day long|
|CONDITIONAL||A: He would speak|
N: He would not speak
Q: Would he speak?
|action that might take place||if sentences type II|
(If I were you, I would go home.)
|A: He would have spoken.|
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
|action that might have taken place in the past||if sentences type III|
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)