Talking About Your Home

➣ Describe your home in English, the inside and the outside ➣ Where do you live? ➣ What’s your home like? ➣ What about your neighbourhood?

Contents:

1. Introducing where you live 0:21

2. Describing the inside of your home 3:10

3. Saying what you like or dislike about your home 4:33

4. Saying who you live with 6:47

5. Talking about your neighbourhood 7:25

6. Review and practice 8:40

You can learn:

➣ English vocabulary to talk about different types of home.

➣ How to make your speaking more natural and interesting by adding details.

➣ How to make longer answers when talking about your home in English.

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Talking About Your Family

In this lesson, you can learn how to talk about your family in English.

Do you have a big family?

What do you like doing when you spend time with your family?

Talking about family can be a good way to start a conversation in English, so it’s useful if you know what to say and have some questions to ask.

Contents:

1. Introducing Your Family 0:29

2. Talking About Brothers and Sisters 1:15

3. Talking About Your Immediate/Extended Family 2:02

4. Talking About Your Children 3:06

5. Talking About Your Relationship with Your Family 4:00

6. Making a Longer Answer 5:04

You can learn:

➣ How to introduce your family in a simple way.

➣ How to talk about your immediate and your extended family.

➣ How to talk about your brothers and sisters.

➣ How to talk about your children when you’re talking about your family in English.

➣ How to talk about your relationship with your family, and what you like to do together.

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Present Simple

Your daily routine in the morning



Your daily routine and habits

En el vídeo un dibujo te muestra una rutina diaria con el nombre de la actividad escrita debajo, que puedes oír dos veces.

Las rutinas diarias para la primera sección son del mundo laboral Me despierto ➣apago la alarma ➣me levanto ➣me ducho ➣me visto ➣me peino ➣preparo el desayuno ➣desayuno ➣me cepillo los dientes ➣voy a trabajar ➣empiezo a trabajar a las 9 ➣respondo los correos electrónicos ➣almuerzo ➣trabajo con el ordenador ➣termino de trabajar a las 5 ➣voy a casa ➣llego a casa ➣le doy de comer al perro ➣preparo la cena ➣ceno ➣veo la televisión ➣leo un libro ➣me acuesto ➣me duermo

➫En la siguiente sección hay rutinas diarias del mundo escolar Voy a la escuela ➣hago clases ➣termino la escuela a las 3 ➣voy a casa ➣hago los deberes

➫La sección final es un ejercicio de práctica donde aparece en la pantalla un dibujo de una rutina con tres frases. Se debe elegir la frase que describe la actividad. La respuesta aparece después de 5 segundos.

Simple present Verb to be

I amI‘m
You areYou‘re
He isHe‘s
She isShe‘s
It isIt‘s
We areWe‘re
You areYou‘re
They areThey‘re

Click here to practise

I am notI‘m not
You are notYou aren’t
He is notHe isn’t
She is notShe isn’t
It is notIt isn’t
We are notWe aren’t
You are notYou aren’t
They are notThey aren’t

Click here to practise

Am I ?
Are you ?
Is he ?
Is she ?
Is it ?
Are we ?
Are you ?
Are they ?

Click here to practise questions

Clich here to practise WH questions

Click here to practise making positive, negative and question forms with ‘be’ (exercise 1)

Click here to practise making positive, negative and question forms with ‘be’ (exercise 2)

The Present Simple Tense

It is used for:

➣General truths and facts

Water boils at 100º

The sun rises in the east

Apes laugh like humans

The train leaves at 12

➣Regular events AND HABITs

We often use frequency adverbs always ➣usually ➣often ➣sometimes ➣never

I always have a holiday in the summer. I never work in August.

He never eats outside. He doesn’t like restaurants.

They often buy vegan food.

FORM

AffirmativeInterrogativeNegative
I workDo I work?I do not work
You  understandDo you understand?You do not understand
He sleepsDoes he sleep?He does not sleep
She thinksDoes she think?She does not think
It worksDoes it work?It does not work
We studyDo we study?We do not study
You go togetherDo you go together?You do not go together
They learnDo they learn?They do not learn

3rd person ( -s, -es ) Spelling ChangesClick here for exercises

exercises 1 – exercises 2 – exercises 3 – exercises 4

Yes / No Questions exercise 1

Wh- Questions exercise 1

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Present Continuous

It is used for actions which are happening now, at the moment of speakingWe are working at the moment

for temporary situations although the action isn’t happening at the moment of speaking She’s staying with her friend for a week

for very repeated habits She is always laughing

affirmative negative interrogative
I am studyingI am not studyingAm I studying?
You are standingYou are not standingAre you standing?
He/ She/ It is workingHe is not workingIs she working?
We are swimmingWe are not swimmingAre we swimming?
You are payingYou are not payingAre you paying?
They are drinkingThey are not drinkingAre they drinking?

What are you doing?

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann

Write the exercise like that:

Bernie is the living room. He is reading a newspaper.

Sam and Ella are in the living room. They are watching TV.

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann



Learn Present Continuous with your favourite TV shows



Learn Present Continuous with Songs’ lyrics


Lesson and exercises

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Present Simple or Continuous

Remember!

We use the present simple to talk about facts, routines, habits (the things you normally do or don’t do). We use the present continuous to talk about the things you are doing at the moment of speaking.


I always eat salad for lunch but I am eating pumpkin soup now.

ALSO

I work in a school ➫permanent situation

I’m working in a school ➫temporary situation

Be careful with the spanish translation!

¿Qué haces ahí? What are you doing there?

¿Qué miras? What are you looking at?

¿Qué comes? What are you eating?

¿Dónde vas?Where are you going?

¿Hablas conmigo? Are you talking to me?

¿Vienes con nosotros?Are you coming with us?

These actions are happening NOW in Spanish and in English





Do you get confused with ➣I go ➣ I am going ?

Watch the video so you don’t make the mistake of mixing them up



Watch the video and choose the right tense ➣present simple or present continuous.

Aquí tienes el ejercicio del vídeo con las frases que aparecen y debajo la KEY (respuesta correcta)

1. He flies / is flying planes.

2. They fly / are flying a plane.                         

3. He speaks / is speaking right now.

4. He doesn’t speak / isn’t speaking at the moment.

5. She always goes / is going to bed at 8 o’clock.

6. The baby sleeps / is sleeping.

7. The father reads / is reading a book to his son every night.

8. The children walk / are walking to school now.

9. The sisters wear / are wearing uniforms to school every day.

10. The dog licks / is licking the boy’s face.

11. He loves / is loving his dog.

12. He plays / is playing video games for an hour every day.

13. He plays / is playing a computer game at the moment.

14. He studies / is studying many different subjects.

15. The boy studies / is studying for a test.

16. The dog wears / is wearing glasses.

17. He wears / is wearing glasses every day.

18. David Beckham has / is having three children.

19. They eat / are eating pizza for dinner.

20. The baby cries / is crying.

21. The elderly woman sings / is singing.

22. She has / is having extremely long hair.

23. The hairdresser cuts / is cutting a woman’s hair right now.

24. The fish lives / is living in a pond.

25. He owns / is owning a Mercedes Benz.

26. He drives / is driving at the moment.

27. He drives / is driving a taxi for a living.

KEY

1. He flies planes.

2. They are flying a plane.                                

3. He is speaking right now.

4. He isn’t speaking at the moment.

5. She always goes to bed at 8 o’clock.

6. The baby is sleeping.

7. The father reads a book to his son every night.

8. The children are walking to school now.

9. The sisters wear uniforms to school every day.

10. The dog is licking the boy’s face.

11. He loves his dog.

12. He plays video games for an hour every day.

13. He is playing a computer game at the moment.

14. He studies many different subjects.

15. The boy is studying for a test.

16. The dog is wearing glasses.

17. He wears glasses every day.

18. David Beckham has three children.

19. They are eating pizza for dinner.

20. The baby is crying.

21. The elderly woman is singing.

22. She has extremely long hair.

23. The hairdresser is cutting a woman’s hair right now.

24. The fish lives in a pond.

25. He owns a Mercedes Benz.

26. He is driving at the moment.

27. He drives a taxi for a living.

Simple Present and Present Continuous

Lesson and exercises

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Past Simple

It is used for finished actions, states or habits in the past with a past time reference ➣ yesterday ➣ last week ➣ at 2 o’clock ➣ in 2003 ➣ when I was born

Last week a new student from China joined our class. She came in, introduced herself, and began to talk about her country. She showed us in a map where she was from.

Famous people

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann

Who were these people

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann

VERB TO BE


reference: English for Adults Burlington

Read the lesson and make the online exercises

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Past Continuous

The past continuous describes an action that was happening when another action interrupts

Last month a student from China joined our class. She came in, introduced herself, and began to talk about her country. She showed us where she was from on a map. While she was talking about her home town, the school bell suddenly rang.

I was writingI was not writingWas I writing?
You were skiingYou were not skiingWere you skiing?
He was readingHe wasn’t readingWas he reading?
We were tryingWe weren’t tryingWere we trying?
They were dyingThey weren’t dyingWere they dying?

Actions that were in progress at a particular time in the past and descriptions of habits

  • At midnight, we were still driving .
  • Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
  • He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
  • I didn’t like them because they were always complaining.

Parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past

When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was shouting at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.


Friday the 13th. Everything went wrong for Larry. Look at his misfortunes

HERE ARE THE TEXTS FOR THE PICTURES ABOVE, BUT THEY ARE IN THE WRONG ORDER
Here there are some questions about the pictures. Try to answer them without looking at the texts
More and more things went wrong for Larry. Join the sentences according to the pictures
Write a short narration for each event. For example:

On Sunday Larry was swimming in the sea when his shorts came off in the water. He felt very embarrased because there were a lot of people on the beach. He had to wait inside the water until everyone left.

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann


reference: English for Life Pre-Intermediate Oxford

ExerciseExerciseExercise

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Present Perfect

HAVE / HAS + PARTICIPLE

I have workedI have not workedHave I worked?
You have sleptYou have not sleptHave I slept?
He has eaten peasHe has not eaten meatHas he eaten nuts?
She has adopted a catShe has not bought a dogHas she adopted?
It has workedIt has not workedHas it worked?
We have understoodWe have not understoodHave we understood?
They have drunkThey have not drunkHave they drunk?

We use the present perfect:

  • for something that started in the past and continues in the present:

They have been friends for nearly fifty years.
She has lived in Liverpool all her life.

  • when we are talking about our experience up to the present:

Ive seen that film before.
He has written three books and he is working on another one.

For, since, already, yet, just, ever

Estas palabras se suelen emplear con el present perfect.

For: indica la duración de la acción.


She has lived here for two years.
Vive aquí desde hace dos años.
They haven’t eaten meat for decades
No han comido carne desde hace décadas
Since:  “desde”. Indica cuándo comenzó la acción.


I haven’t seen her since 2004.
No la he visto desde 2004.
Already: “ya”. Indica que la acción ya se ha realizado.

We have already sold our flat.
Ya hemos vendido nuestro piso.
Yet:  “todavía” en oraciones negativas, pero, “ya” en interrogativas. Al final de la oración.

They haven’t started yet.
Todavía no han empezado.
Have you called yet?
¿Ya has llamado?


Just: Indica que la acción justo acaba de realizarse.


I have just finished my homework.
Acabo de terminar los deberes.
Ever: pregunta por tu experiencia. Have you ever eaten a vegan burguer?
¿Has comido alguna vez una hamburguesa vegana?

past ⇆ present perfect

reference: Headway Pre-Intermediate Oxford

Which of these questions are referred to John or to Karl Marx?

Obviously the questions in the present (3) and present perfect (1,4,7) refer to John, as he is alive and the actions continue up to the present. The four questions in the past (2,5,6,8) refer to Marx, as he is dead.


Present Perfect Interrogative

Yes / No Questions and WH Questions

Present Perfect Exercises

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Past Perfect

The past perfect is used to state which action happened first. When we talk about something in the past and we want to mention something which happened before that past action we use the past perfect.

I have named it the past before the pastand in Spanish corresponds with ↪Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto I had finished Yo había terminado

She told me she had never eaten meatMe dijo que nunca había comido carne

The plants were dead because it had not rainedLas plantas estaban muertas porque no había llovido

If you had heard the shot you would have run off to call the police Si hubieras oído el disparo habrías ido corriendo a llamar a la policía


I had eaten ➫ I’d eatenI had not eaten ➫ I hadn’t eaten
You had stayed ➫ You’d stayedYou had not stayed ➫ You hadn’t stayed
She had gone ➫ She’d goneShe had not gone ➫ She hadn’t gone
They had grown ➫ They’d grownThey had not grown ➫ They hadn’t grown

La contracción de had es‘d Pero… ¿Cómo saber si ➣ ‘d es contracción de had o de would ? Muy fácil. Si el verbo está en infinitivo es would y si está en participio es had .

I’d like me gustaría I’d likedme había gustado

We’d goiríamosWe’d gonehabíamos/hubimos/hubiéramos/hubiésemos ido



Aesop, (Esopo in Spanish), was a Greek fabulist and storyteller who lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 B.C.  His tales are known as Aesop’s fables. They are characterized by animals, people or objects that speak, solve problems and lead to a moral lesson with a concise maxim or saying.

reference: Headway Pre-Intermediate Oxford

Audio The Bear and the Travellers

Choose one of the three sayings to summarize the moral of the fable

 “Friendship is like a glass ornament, once it is broken it can rarely be put back together exactly the same way.”

“A true friend is someone who is there for you when he would prefer to be anywhere else.”

“Friends are easy to make and difficult to keep.“

The Bear and the Travellers is a story of two friends walking through rough country who are suddenly confronted by a bear. One of the travellers saves himself by climbing up a tree while the other throws himself on the ground and pretends to be dead. The bear comes near him, sniffs him and leaves. Then the friend in the tree came down and laughing asked what the bear had said to him. “It was some good advice,” said his friend; “he told me never to trust someone who deserts you in need.”


ANSWERS

1 -b 2 -e 3 -a 4 -f 5 -c 6 -d


Let’s see how it works in Spanish:

1 Cuando llegué,

… ella hizo la cena.

… estaba haciendo la cena.

… había hecho la cena.

2 Ella hablaba buen francés porque,

… vivía en Francia.

… había vivido en Francia.

3 Yo escuchaba música,

… mientras hacía los deberes.

… cuando hube hecho los deberes.

4 Cuando llegué a casa,

… los niños se acostaron.

… los niños se habían acostado.

5 Ella me dio un libro,

… para que lo leyera.

… pero ya lo había leído.

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Future Tenses

To express future we use WILL for:

A sudden decision

  • Ok, I‘ll go with you
  • Yes, I will marry you

A voluntary action, an offering

  • I‘ll make some sandwiches
  • They will do it

A request

  • Will you help me?
  • Will you make dinner?

A promise

  • Don’t worry, I‘ll be careful
  • I promise I won’t tell anyone

A prediction

  • I think it will rain
  • We will probably come back tomorrow

A conditional clauses type I

  • If he phones me, I won’t answer
Afirmative ➣ Plants will grow
Negative ➣ The planet will not / won’t survive
Interrogative ➣ Will wild animals die out?



No obstante, igual que en español podemos expresar el futuro de tres maneras diferentes:
Mañana lo haré (decisión más espontánea)

willI will do it tomorrow

Mañana lo voy a hacer (decisión más planeada)

going toI am going to do it tomorrow

Mañana lo hago (el presente también puede indicar futuro)

CAREFUL  present continuous I am doing it tomorrow

The future in your hands

Palmistry. Do you believe it is possible to tell a person’s future by studying their hands? Do you know how to do it? Look at the palm of the hand you write with. Then look at the picture below. Find the 5 lines. A palmist believes that each line tells us something about our future.

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann

Exercises will

Exercises will

Exercises will

Mixed sentences

Exercise – Future Mix

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Conditionals

Type I – First Conditional

Se forma con el presente y el futurowill If + present simple … will + infinitive.

Para hablar de situaciones reales, probables o muy factibles.

If you come this weekend, I will stay Si vienes el fin de semana, me quedaré.

If you park here, you will get a fine ➣ Si aparcas aquí, te van a multar.

If he saves enough money, he will buy a new laptop ➣ Si ahorra suficiente, se comprará un portátil.

Type II – Second conditional

Se forma con el pasado y el condicionalwouldIf + past simple … would + infinitive.

Para hablar de cosas que no es probable que ocurran o directamente imposibles

If I won the lottery, I would spend my life travelling ➣ Si ganara la lotería, me pasaría la vida viajando.

If I were younger, I would travel more ➣ Si fuese más joven, viajaría más.

If you didn’t work so much, we would do more things ➣ Si no trabajaras tanto, haríamos más cosas.

Type III – Third conditional

Se forma con el past perfect y el condicional perfectoIf + past perfect … would have + past participle.

Para hablar de una situación que no sucedió y de sus consecuencias. De situaciones hipotéticas y que ya no hay forma de cambiar para bien o para mal.

If I had got up earlier, I would have arrived on time ➣ Si me hubiera levantado antes, habría llegado a tiempo.

If she hadn’t taken the risk, she would have lost a great opportunity ➣ Si no se hubiese arriesgado, habría perdido una gran oportunidad.

Summing up. El condicional en inglés funciona exactamente igual que en español. La traducción es literal

Si lo veolo compraréIf I see itI will buy it
Si lo vieselo compraríaIf I saw it I would buy it
Si lo hubiese vistolo habría compradoIf I had seen itI would have bought it

Practise second conditional

What would you do if you were in these situations?

reference: New Generation Colin Granger Heinemann



Practise third conditional

reference: English for Life Intermediate Oxford





Conditional Exercises

Conditional sentences-English Grammar Exercises

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Irregular Verbs

Una de las asignaturas pendientes es la lista de verbos irregulares

Los verbos irregulares, aunque se llamen irregulares, siguen unos patrones que se repiten:

Infinitivo, pasado y participio son iguales o diferentes

Pasado y participio son iguales y acabados en T o en EN

Infinitivo y participio son iguales. Al participio se le añade una N.

En este vídeo se agrupan bajo unas pautas para estudiarlos y ayudar a memorizarlos.

Grammar Exercises – Simple Past Tense

Do the exercises on the simple past tense and click on the button to check your answers here

(Before doing the exercises you can read the lesson on the simple past tense)

Past participle – Exercises: irregular verbs

Choose the correct form here

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The English Tenses

Table of Tenses

Present SimplePresent ContinuousPast SimplePast Continuous
She eatsYou are eatingShe ateYou were eating
She does not eatYou are not eatingShe did not eatYou were not eating
Does she eat?Are you eating?Did she eat?Were you eating?
Future SimpleConditional SimplePresent PerfectPast Perfect
I will eatI would eatHe has eatenHe had eaten
I won’t eatI wouldn’t eatHe has not eatenHe had not eaten
Will I eat?Would I eat?Has he eaten?Had he eaten?
Present Perfect ContinuousI have been doing
Past Perfect ContinuousI had been doing
Future ContinuousI will be doing
Future PerfectI will have done
Future Perfect ContinuousI will have been doing

A: Affirmative
N: Negative
Q:
Question
UseKey Words
PRESENTA: He speaks
N: He does not speak
Q: Does he speak?
for routines,
habits or facts
always,usually,often, sometimes,never, every day, on Tuesdays
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
.
PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
A: He is speaking
N: He is not speaking
Q: Is he speaking?
action taking place at the moment of speaking or only for a limited period of time/ future arrangementsnow, right now, just now, at this moment
.
PASTA: He spoke
N: He did not speak
Q: Did he speak?
for past actions yesterday, five minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, last century
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)
.
PAST
CONTINUOUS
A: He was speaking
N: He was not speaking
Q: Was he speaking?
action going on at a certain time in the past or actions taking place at the same time/ action in the past that is interrupted by another actionwhile, as long as
.
PRESENT
PERFECT
A: He has spoken
N: He has not spoken
Q: Has he spoken?
action that began in the past but still continues/ finished action that has an influence on the present/ action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speakingalready, yet, ever, just, up to now
.
PRESENT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
A: He has been speaking
N: He has not been speaking
Q: Has he been speaking?
putting emphasis on the duration (not the result) /action that recently stopped or is still going on/ finished action that influences the presentall day, for two years, since 1993, the whole week, how long?
.
PAST
PERFECT
A: He had spoken
N: He had not spoken
Q: Had he spoken?
action taking place before a certain time in the past (the past before the past)already, just, never, yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)
.
PAST
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
A: He had been speaking
N: He had not been speaking
Q: Had he been speaking?
action taking place before a certain time in the past interchangeable with past perfect (emphasis on the duration) for, since, all day, the whole day
.
FUTUREA: He will speak
N: He will not speak
Q: Will he speak?
sudden
spontaneous decision
in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-sentence type I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
I think, probably, perhaps
.
FUTURE
GOING TO
A: He is going to speak
N: He is not going to speak
Q: Is he going to speak?
planned decision or conclusion with regard to the futurein one year, next week, tomorrow
.
FUTURE
CONTINUOUS
A: He will be speaking
N: He will not be speaking
Q: Will he be speaking?
action that is going on at a certain time in the future action that is sure to happen in the near futurein one year, next week, tomorrow
.
FUTURE
PERFECT
A: He will have spoken
N: He will not have spoken
Q: Will he have spoken?
action that will be finished at a certain time in the futureby Monday, in a week
.
FUTURE
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
A: He will have been speaking
N: He will not have been speaking
Q: Will he have been speaking?
action taking place before a certain time in the future putting emphasis on the course of an actionfor …, the last couple of hours, all day long
.
CONDITIONALA: He would speak
N: He would not speak
Q: Would he speak?
action that might take placeif sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)
. 
CONDITIONAL
PERFECT
A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
action that might have taken place in the pastif sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
. 

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Modal verbs

Modals are auxiliary verbs that indicate modality. Modality is the attitude or the connotation we want to express.

Modal verbs are used to express: ability, advice, obigation, prohibition, permission, possibility…..

Ability  – can  / could (in the past)

Obligation  – must  / have to

Prohibition  – mustn’t  / can’t 

Absence of obligation  – don’t have to  / needn’t

Advice  should  / ought to

Permission  – may  / can / could

Certainty  – must 

Probability  – may / might / can / could 

Examples

  • Ability  ➣He can speak several languages ➣I could jump when I was younger
  • Obligation   ➣You must stop at a red traffic light ➣I have to work
  • Prohibition    ➣We mustn’t tell him ➣You can’t smoke here
  • Absence of obligation  ➣She doesn’t have to do that ➣He needn’t buy it
  • Advice  ➣He should study more ➣She ought to eat less
  • Permission  ➣Can we come? May I go to the toilet?
  • Certainty  ➣He must be very tired. He has been working hard
  • Probability   ➣It may / might rain tomorrow  ➣This can / could be dangerous

Modals verbs exercises

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Graded readings

ReadingElementaryPresent Tense

Read about Tomas from Vienna. Answer True/False questions about him

Here


ReadingElementaryPast Tense

Martin’s Vacation Question/Answer Match

Here


ReadingDiscriminatory language ➣Download Descarga


Reading – Intermediate ➣ (video)

Reader Literature Dracula

Here


Reading – Advanced ➣ (video)

The story of English starts more than a thousand years ago. Richard goes to the British Library to hear – and see – how the language has changed over the years.

Here


Reading – Advanced ➣ (video)

Learn English Through Story The Stranger by Norman Whitney

Here


Readings – Actual text ➣ Texto real

Three extracts from two autobiographies and a play

MY EARLY LIFE BY WINSTON S. CHURCHILL

I was to go to school. I was now seven years old,…I was also excited and agitated by this great change in my life. I thought in spite of the lessons, it would be fun living with so many other boys, and that we should make friends together and have great adventures. Also I was told that ‘school days were the happiest time in one’s life.’

The school my parents had selected for my education was one of the most fashionable and expensive in the country. It modelled itself upon Eton and aimed at being preparatory for that Public School above all others. It was supposed to be the very last thing in schools. Only ten boys in a class; electric light (then a wonder); a swimming pond; spacious football and cricket grounds; two or three school treats, or ‘expeditions’ as they were called, every term; the masters all M.A.’s in gowns and mortar-boards; a chapel of its own; no hampers allowed; everything provided by the authorities. It was a dark November afternoon when we arrived at this establishment. We had tea with the Headmaster, with whom my mother conversed in the most easy manner. I was preoccupied with the fear of spilling my cup and so making ‘a bad start.’ I was also miserable at the idea of being left alone among all these strangers in this great, fierce, formidable place. After all I was only seven, and I had been so happy in my nursery with all my toys. I had such wonderful toys: a real steam engine, a magic lantern, and a collection of soldiers already nearly a thousand strong. Now it was to be all lessons. Seven or eight hours of lessons every day except half-holidays, and football or cricket in addition.

When the last sound of my mother’s departing wheels had died away, the Headmaster invited me to hand over any money I had in my possession. I produced my three half-crowns, which were duly entered in a book, and I was told that from time to time there would be a ‘shop’ at the school with all sorts of things which one would like to have, and that I could choose what I liked up to the limit of the seven and sixpence. Then we quitted the Headmaster’s parlour and the comfortable private side of the house, and entered the more bleak apartments reserved for the instruction and accommodation of the pupils. I was taken into a Form Room and told to sit at a desk. All the other boys were out of doors, and I was alone with the Form Master. He produced a thin greeny-brown, covered book filled with words in different types of print.

‘You have never done any Latin before, have you?‘ he said.

‘No, sir.’

‘This is a Latin grammar.’ He opened it at a well-thumbed page. ‘You must learn this,’ he said, pointing to a number of words in a frame of lines. ‘I will come back in half an hour and see what you know.’

Behold me then on a gloomy evening, with an aching heart, seated in front of the First Declension.

  •   Mensa        ➮ a table                 
  •   Mensa        ➮ O table                   
  •   Mensam      ➮ a table                   
  •   Mensae      ➮ of a table                
  •   Mensae      ➮ to or for a table         
  •   Mensa        ➮ by, with or from a table  

What on earth did it mean? Where was the sense in it? It seemed absolute rigmarole to me. However, there was one thing I could always do: I could learn by heart. And I thereupon proceeded, as far as my private sorrows would allow, to memorise the acrostic-looking task which had been set me.

In due course the Master returned.

‘Have you learnt it?’ he asked.

‘I think I can say it, sir,’ I replied; and I gabbled it off.

He seemed so satisfied with this that I was emboldened to ask a question.

‘What does it mean, sir?’

‘It means what it says. Mensa, a table. Mensa is a noun of the First Declension. There are five declensions. You have learnt the singular of the First Declension.’

‘But,’ I repeated, ‘what does it mean?’

‘Mensa means a table,‘ he answered.

Then why does mensa also mean O table,’ I enquired, ‘and what does O table mean?’

‘Mensa, O table, is the vocative case,’ he replied.

‘But why O table?’ I persisted in genuine curiosity.

‘O table,—you would use that in addressing a table, in invoking a table.‘ And then seeing he was not carrying me with him, ‘You would use it in speaking to a table.’

‘But I never do,’ I blurted out in honest amazement.

‘If you are impertinent, you will be punished, and punished, let me tell you, very severely,’ was his conclusive rejoinder.

Such was my first introduction to the classics from which, I have been told, many of our cleverest men have derived so much solace and profit.

Vocabulario
Birrete de graduación adulto (Birretes)

the masters all M.A.’s in gowns and mortar-boards ➣los profesores todos licenciados con sus togas y birretes.

no hampers allowed ➣no se permitían cestas de comida

It seemed absolute rigmarole to me ➣me pareció un perfecto galimatías

I could learn by heart ➣lo podía aprender de memoria

I was emboldened to ask a question ➣me envalentoné a hacer una pregunta



Memories of a Catholic Girlhood by Mary McCarthy

Published in 1957, this autobiography begins with McCarthy’s recollections of an indulgent, idyllic childhood tragically altered by the death of her parents in the influenza epidemic of 1918. She and her three younger brothers, and all four grandparents survived. In the 1918 pandemic, a disproportionate percentage of victims were young adults. The narration is imbued with a passionate sense of justice and the portrayal of her ghastly Cinderella childhood.

Whenever we children came to stay at my grandmother’s house, we were put to sleep in the sewing room, a bleak, shabby, utilitarian rectangle, more office than bedroom, more attic than office, that played to the hierarchy of chambers the role of a poor relation.

It was a room seldom entered by the other members of the family, seldom swept by the maid, a room without pride; the old sewing machine, some cast-off chairs, a shadeless lamp, rolls of wrapping paper, piles of cardboard boxes that might someday come in handy, papers of pins, and remnants of material united with the iron folding cots put out for our use and the bare floor boards to give an impression of ruthless temporality.

Thin white spreads, of the kind used in hospitals and charity institutions, and naked blinds at the windows reminded us of our orphaned condition and of the ephemeral character of our visit; there was nothing here to encourage us to consider this our home.

Poor Roy’s children, as commiseration damply styled us, could not afford illusions, in the family opinion. Our father had put us beyond the pale by dying suddenly of influenza and taking our young mother with him, a defection that was remarked on with horror and grief commingled, as though our mother had been a pretty secretary with whom he had wantonly absconded into the irresponsible paradise of the hereafter. Our reputation was clouded by this misfortune.

VOCABULARIO

we were put to sleep in the sewing room ➣ nos ponían a dormir en el cuarto de la costura

that played to the hierarchy of chambers the role of a poor relation (habitación) que, dentro de la jerarquía de las piezas de la casa, desempeñaba el papel de pariente pobre

could not afford illusions ➣ no nos podíamos permitir tener ilusiones

had put us beyond the pale ➣ nos había dejado en la estacada

defection ➣deserción

as though our mother had been a pretty secretary with whom he had wantonly absconded into the irresponsible paradise of the hereafter. ➣ como si nuestra madre hubiera sido una guapa secretaria con la que él se hubiese fugado impúdicamente al irresponsable paraíso del más allá.



The Importance of Being Earnest A Trivial Comedy for Serious People BY Oscar Wilde

FIRST ACT

Lady Bracknell. [Pencil and note-book in hand.] I feel bound to tell you that you are not down on my list of eligible young men, although I have the same list as the dear Duchess of Bolton has. We work together, in fact. However, I am quite ready to enter your name, should your answers be what a really affectionate mother requires. Do you smoke?

Jack. Well, yes, I must admit I smoke.

Lady Bracknell. I am glad to hear it. A man should always have an occupation of some kind. There are far too many idle men in London as it is. How old are you?

Jack. Twenty-nine.

Lady Bracknell. A very good age to be married at. I have always been of opinion that a man who desires to get married should know either everything or nothing. Which do you know?

Jack. [After some hesitation.] I know nothing, Lady Bracknell.

Lady Bracknell. I am pleased to hear it. I do not approve of anything that tampers with natural ignorance. Ignorance is like a delicate exotic fruit; touch it and the bloom is gone. The whole theory of modern education is radically unsound. Fortunately in England, at any rate, education produces no effect whatsoever. If it did, it would prove a serious danger to the upper classes, and probably lead to acts of violence in Grosvenor Square. What is your income?

Jack. Between seven and eight thousand a year.

Lady Bracknell. [Makes a note in her book.] In land, or in investments?

Jack. In investments, chiefly.

Lady Bracknell. That is satisfactory. What between the duties expected of one during one’s lifetime, and the duties exacted from one after one’s death, land has ceased to be either a profit or a pleasure. It gives one position, and prevents one from keeping it up. That’s all that can be said about land.

(Entre los deberes que la esperan a una en el transcurso de la vida y los deberes que la exigen a una después de muerta, la tierra ha dejado de ser en todo caso un beneficio o un placer. Le da a una posición y le impide mantenerla. Eso es todo lo que puede decirse de la tierra).

Jack. I have a country house with some land, of course, attached to it, about fifteen hundred acres, I believe; but I don’t depend on that for my real income. In fact, as far as I can make out, the poachers are the only people who make anything out of it.

Lady Bracknell. A country house! How many bedrooms? Well, that point can be cleared up afterwards. You have a town house, I hope? A girl with a simple, unspoiled nature, like Gwendolen, could hardly be expected to reside in the country.

Jack. Well, I own a house in Belgrave Square, but it is let by the year to Lady Bloxham. Of course, I can get it back whenever I like, at six months’ notice.

Lady Bracknell. Lady Bloxham? I don’t know her.

Jack. Oh, she goes about very little. She is a lady considerably advanced in years.

Lady Bracknell. Ah, nowadays that is no guarantee of respectability of character. What number in Belgrave Square?

Jack. 149.

Lady Bracknell. [Shaking her head.] The unfashionable side. I thought there was something. However, that could easily be altered.

Jack. Do you mean the fashion, or the side?

Lady Bracknell. [Sternly.] Both, if necessary, I presume. What are your politics?

Jack. Well, I am afraid I really have none. I am a Liberal Unionist.

Lady Bracknell. Oh, they count as Tories. They dine with us. Or come in the evening, at any rate. Now to minor matters. Are your parents living?

Jack. I have lost both my parents.

Lady Bracknell. To lose one parent, Mr. Worthing, may be regarded as a misfortune; to lose both looks like carelessness. Who was your father? He was evidently a man of some wealth. Was he born in what the Radical papers call the purple of commerce, or did he rise from the ranks of the aristocracy?

Jack. I am afraid I really don’t know. The fact is, Lady Bracknell, I said I had lost my parents. It would be nearer the truth to say that my parents seem to have lost me . . . I don’t actually know who I am by birth. I was . . . well, I was found.

Lady Bracknell. Found!

Jack. The late Mr. Thomas Cardew, an old gentleman of a very charitable and kindly disposition, found me, and gave me the name of Worthing, because he happened to have a first-class ticket for Worthing in his pocket at the time. Worthing is a place in Sussex. It is a seaside resort.

Lady Bracknell. Where did the charitable gentleman who had a first-class ticket for this seaside resort find you?

Jack. [Gravely.] In a hand-bag.

Lady Bracknell. A hand-bag?

Jack. [Very seriously.] Yes, Lady Bracknell. I was in a hand-bag–a somewhat large, black leather hand-bag, with handles to it–an ordinary hand-bag in fact.

Lady Bracknell. In what locality did this Mr. James, or Thomas, Cardew come across this ordinary hand-bag?

Jack. In the cloak-room at Victoria Station. It was given to him in mistake for his own.

Lady Bracknell. The cloak-room at Victoria Station?

Jack. Yes. The Brighton line.

Lady Bracknell. The line is immaterial. Mr. Worthing, I confess I feel somewhat bewildered by what you have just told me. To be born, or at any rate bred, in a hand-bag, whether it had handles or not, seems to me to display a contempt for the ordinary decencies of family life that reminds one of the worst excesses of the French Revolution. And I presume you know what that unfortunate movement led to? As for the particular locality in which the hand-bag was found, a cloak-room at a railway station might serve to conceal a social indiscretion–has probably, indeed, been used for that purpose before now–but it could hardly be regarded as an assured basis for a recognised position in good society.

Jack. May I ask you then what you would advise me to do? I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure Gwendolen’s happiness.

Lady Bracknell. I would strongly advise you, Mr. Worthing, to try and acquire some relations as soon as possible, and to make a definite effort to produce at any rate one parent, of either sex, before the season is quite over.

Jack. Well, I don’t see how I could possibly manage to do that. I can produce the hand-bag at any moment. It is in my dressing-room at home. I really think that should satisfy you, Lady Bracknell.

Lady Bracknell. Me, sir! What has it to do with me? You can hardly imagine that I and Lord Bracknell would dream of allowing our only daughter–a girl brought up with the utmost care–to marry into a cloakroom, and form an alliance with a parcel? Good morning, Mr. Worthing!   

 [Lady Bracknell sweeps out in majestic indignation.]

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Comparative and superlative adjectives

Comparative adjectives are used to compare differences between the two objects they modify (larger, smaller, faster, higher).

  • My house is larger than hers.
  • This box is smaller than the one I lost.
  • Jim and Jack are both fast, but Jack is faster. (“than Jim” is understood)

Superlative adjectives are used to describe an object which is at the upper or lower limit of a quality (the tallest, the smallest, the fastest, the highest). They are used in sentences where a subject is compared to a group of objects.

  • My house is the largest one in our neighborhood.
  • This is the smallest box I have.
  • Mount Everest is the highest mountain on Earth

Forming comparatives and superlatives depends on the number of syllables in the original adjective.

One syllable adjectives

Add -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative. If the adjective has a consonant + single vowel + consonant spelling, the final consonant must be doubled before adding the ending.

AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative
talltallerthe tallest
fatfatterthe fattest
bigbiggerthe biggest
sadsadderthe saddest
Two syllables

Adjectives with two syllables can form the comparative either by adding -er or by preceeding the adjective with more. These adjectives form the superlative either by adding -est or by preceeding the adjective with most. In many cases, both forms are used, although one usage will be more common than the other. If you are not sure whether a two-syllable adjective can take a comparative or superlative ending, play it safe and use more and most instead.

For adjectives ending iny change to an ibusy ➣ busier ➣ the busiest

AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative
happyhappierthe happiest
cleverclevererthe cleverest
whitewhiterthe whitest
Three or more syllables

Adjectives with three or more syllables form the comparative by putting more in front of the adjective, and the superlative by putting most in front.

AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative
importantmore importantthe most important
expensivemore expensivethe most expensive

Irregular comparatives and superlatives

These very common adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms.

AdjectiveComparativeSuperlative
goodbetterthe best
badworsethe worst
littlelessthe least
muchmorethe most
farfurther / fartherthe furthest / farthest
Examples
  • Today is the worst day I’ve had in a long time.
  • Your painting is better than mine.
  • This is the least expensive sweater in the store.
  • This sweater is less expensive than that one.
  • His house is far from town, but her house is even farther.

reference: English for Life Pre-Intermediate Oxford

Make sentences comparing the two elements:

exampleDogs are friendlier than cats

MAKE SENTENCES in the superlative:

exampleMaths is the worst school subject

Read the lesson and make the exercises

MIXED EXERCISES

MIXED EXERCISES

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Adjectives


Adjectives ending in ‘-ed’ and ‘-ing’

Do you know the difference between bored and boring?

Adjectives that end in -ed boredinterested and adjectives that end in -ing boringinteresting are often confused.

-ed adjectives

Adjectives that end in -ed generally describe emotions ➫ they tell us how people feel.

I was so bored in that lesson, I almost fell asleep.
➣ He was surprised to see Helen after all those years.
➣ She was really tired and went to bed early.

-ing adjectives

Adjectives that end in -ing generally describe the thing that causes the emotion ➫ a boring lesson makes you feel bored.

Have you seen that film? It’s really frightening.
➣ I could listen to her for hours. She’s so interesting.
➣ I can’t sleep! That noise is really annoying!

➬ Here are some adjectives that can have both an -ed and an -ing form.

annoyedannoying
boredboring
confusedconfusing
disappointeddisappointing
excitedexciting
frightenedfrightening
interestedinteresting
surprisedsurprising
astonishedastonishing
tiredtiring
worriedworrying

Try this exercise to test your grammar

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Adverbs

The adverbs and the adjectives in English

Adjectives qualify nouns.

Adverbs qualify actions. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

Eva is a careful girl ➫ adjectiveEva drives carefullyadverb

Difference between an adjective and an adverb

I am a slow driver ⮞ How am I? ➱ slow ➫ adjective
I drive slowly ⮞ How do I drive? ➱ slowly ➫ adverb

Adjective when you indicate something about the noun

Adverb when you indicate something about the verb

reference: English for Life Pre-Intermediate Oxford

NOTE : After the verbs ➣ be ➣ look ➣ taste ➣ sound ➫there is an adjectiveNOT an adverb

The meal was perfectNOT perfectly

It sounded terribleNOT terribly

Adverbs and adjectives that have the same form

closedailyearlyfair
farfasthardhigh
latelonglowright
widewrong

Form: Adjective + -ly

adjectiveadverb
dangerousdangerously
safesafely
happyhappily
horriblehorribly
easyeasily
literalliterally
shyshyly
GOODWELL

BE CAREFUL He is a good cat but he does not feel well

BE CAREFUL NOT all words ending in -ly are adverbs:

  • adjectives ending in -ly: curly, chilly, friendly, elderly, silly, lonely, ugly, lovely, lively
  • nouns, ending in -ly: butterfly, family, jelly, ally, bully, melancholy
  • verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, reply, supply, comply, imply

Used:

➣ to modify verbs

The team played badly.

I want to live intensely.

➣ to modify adjectives

It was an extremely bad match.

I feel rather ashamed.

➣to modify adverbs

Mark behaves utterly well.

There are quite a lot of people.

➣ to modify sentences

Unfortunately, the flight has been cancelled.

Suddenly, the lights went out.

Types:

Adverbs of frequency

They answer how often something happens.

  • always
  • frequently
  • usually
  • often
  • sometimes
  • occasionally
  • rarely
  • hardly ever
  • seldom
  • never

These adverbs go before the verb.

Subjectauxiliaryadverb of frequencyverb
He nevergets up early
Theycanoftendo it
I do notalwaysgo there

BUT after verb to be

Subjectverb to beadverb of frequency
Sueisseldom late

Adverbs of time

They answer when something happens.

nowdailysoon sinceeventually
thenweeklyearly just finally
todayfortnightlylate alreadylately
tonightmonthlylast yetformerly
tomorrowyearlyfirst stillrecently
yesterdayannuallynext previously
before
after

Adverbs of place

They answer where something happens.

Adverbs of manner

They answer how something happens.

Adverbs of degree

They answer how much something happens.

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Prepositions

Practise prepositions the fun way with these videos

Look at the use of prepositions of time AT ➣ON ➣IN.

AT with Specific Time (hours) and Holiday Periods

ON with Days and Dates

IN with Months, Years, Decades, Centuries, Seasons and for Future time



Practise with this video Prepositions of Time ➣AT ➣ON ➣IN

Prepositions exercise – Intermediate level – 52 questions

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Pronouns

I love my cat

He tolerates me

I tell myself that he is mine

What is a pronoun?

Pronouns are some of the most useful words in the English language. They are used in the place of a noun to avoid it having to be named twice.

Definition of Pronoun

In English, the part of speech used as a substitute for an antecedent noun that is clearly understood, and with which it agrees in person, number, and gender.

Pronouns are classified as

Personal or Subject Pronouns ➭used before the verb

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they

Object Pronouns ➭used after a verb or a preposition

me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them

Possessive Pronouns

mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs

Possessive Adjectives ➭always used with a noun

my, your, his, her, our, your, their

Reflexive Pronouns

myself, youself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Demonstrative

this, these, that, those

Relative

that, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, why

Interrogative

who, which, what, when, where, how, why, whose, whom

Indefinite

As the word “indefinite” suggests, these pronouns do not specify the identity of their referents. They are more vague than other pronouns:

➣everybody ➣everyone ➣everything ➣all

➣some ➣any

➣many ➣much ➣few ➣little

➣one ➣other ➣another ➣others

➣both ➣several





Subject and Object Pronouns Exercise 1

Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns exercise 1

Choose the correct subject pronouns, object pronouns, possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives

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Linking words

➫They are used to link or connect words or sentences.

We can use linking words to give examples ➣add information ➣summarise ➣sequence information ➣give a reason or result ➣to contrast ideas.

in my view > a mi parecer, en mi opinión              

in the first place > en primer lugar                       

first of all > primero, ante todo                              

generally speaking > en términos generales, por regla general   

above all > sobre todo                                        

afterwards > después                                         

again and again > una y otra vez                     

as a result > como consecuencia                      

as soon as > tan pronto como, a corto plazo, a la mayor brevedad posible                  

as things are > tal como están las cosas          

in the near future > en breve                         

broadly speaking > en términos generales         

by the way > a propósito,  por cierto                                         

actually, in fact > de hecho,  en realidad,  a decir verdad    

as an example > a título de ejemplo                

for instance >   por ejemplo          

meanwhile > mientras tanto                            

while > mientras                 

until > hasta                             

too, also, as well > también                          

more or less > más o menos                          

furthermore,  moreover > además      

although, even though  > aunque      

but > pero    

nevertheless > no obstante            

however > sin embargo                               

so, therefore > por lo tanto                          

nowadays > hoy en día                                

obviously > obviamente

on the other hand > en cambio,  por otra parte   

on the whole > por lo general    

once > una vez

or > o

to tell the truth > a decir verdad                              

to a certain extent > hasta cierto punto                 

under no circumstances > bajo ningún motivo     

undoubtedly > sin duda                                       

last but not least > y finalmente pero no por ello menos importante 

finally,  in the end > al final       

to sum up > en resumen           


This is another famous Aesop’s fables. Read it and choose the correct connector:

reference: Headway Pre-Intermediate Oxford

AUDIO The Boy who Cried Wolf



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Make / Do

➣En español sólo hay un verbo hacer, por lo que suele ser un enigma cuándo utilizar uno u otro. Let’s try.

We use ‘make’ when we create or construct something. For example:

  • She made a cake.
  • I’ve made us some coffee.
  • Did you really make those trousers?

We use ‘do’ for general activities. ‘Do‘ is often used with ‘something’, ‘nothing’, ‘anything’ or ‘everything’:

  • What did you do at the weekend?
  • I didn’t do anything yesterday.
  • She cannot do everything herself. She needs some help.
  • Are you doing anything interesting during the holidays?
  • What do you do? (means ‘what’s your job?)

Expressions with ‘make’ and ‘do’.

➣They don’t follow any rules, so you have to learn them by heart.

DO:

30 mph (miles per hour)Many people do more than 30 mph through this town. It’s very dangerous.
badlyShe did very badly on the exam, so she’ll have to retake it.
your bestDon’t worry about getting everything correct. Just do your best.
businessIt’s been a pleasure doing business with you.
choresI have to go home and do some chores this afternoon.
a courseJohn has decided to do a course in computing this autumn.
a crosswordShe sat on the sofa, doing a crossword and drinking tea.
damageThe storm has done a lot of damage to the house.
the dishes / the washing upI really hate doing the dishes. I’m hoping to buy a dishwasher this year.
a drawingThe little boy spent hours doing a drawing.
your dutyHe has to do his duty and look after his elderly parents.
an examI have to do three exams and write a huge essay this term.
exerciseJulie likes doing exercise, especially running.
an exerciseThe teacher asked us to do a lot of grammar exercises over the holidays
someone a favourMy friend did me a huge favour and lent me some money.
the gardeningDavid often spends Sunday afternoons doing gardening.
goodShe helps homeless people and tries to do good.
you goodYou should eat your vegetables. They’ll do you good!
your hairAllie spends ages doing her hair in the morning.
harmI spilt coffee on my suit and tried to clean it, but I did more harm than good. It looks even worse now!
homeworkHave you finished doing your homework?
houseworkLet’s do the housework quickly this morning, then we can go out for lunch.
the ironingMy mother listens to the radio while she does the ironing.
a jobI think the students did a great job with this essay. It’s excellent.
the laundry / the washingHe did the laundry, cleaned the house, and made dinner.
your nailsJenny likes to do her nails each week.
a paintingThere was an old man sitting on the bank of the river, doing a painting.
paperworkDoes everybody hate doing paperwork?
researchI’m doing some research for my thesis at the moment.
the shoppingI’ll do the shopping tomorrow morning. We need milk, bread, pasta and bananas.
time (= be in prison)He broke into a bank, was caught by the police, and now he’s doing time.
wellMy sister is doing well in her new job.
workUnfortunately, Lucy does a lot of work at the weekends.
your worstI’ve bought all new winter clothes:– boots, a coat and a very warm hat. Weather, do your worst!

MAKE:

amendsI’m so sorry that I upset you. How can I make amends?
an appointmentShe had toothache, so she made an appointment with the dentist for the following day.
arrangementsOkay, so we’re going to go on holiday in September. Let’s make some arrangements. I’ll find a hotel, and you can look at flights.
an attemptI know we might not catch the plane, but let’s at least make an attempt to be on time.
believeThe children’s favourite game is to make believe that they are kings and queens from long ago.
certainI think the café opens at six, but let’s make certain. I don’t want to be standing in the street waiting!
a changeI’ve made some changes to the document.
a choiceWhich job are you going to take? You need to make a choice.
a commentMy mother made a comment about my shoes.
a complaintThe food took so long to arrive that Julie made a complaint to the manager.
a confessionI’d like to make a confession. I was the one who ate the last of the chocolate.
a dateI’d love to see you soon. How about if we make a date for next week?
a decisionI’ve made my decision. I’m going to go back to university.
a differenceGoing to the gym has really made a difference to how I feel.
a discoveryWhen John was last in London he made a discovery – a beautiful little café in a quiet street.
an effortYou’re not trying hard enough! Make an effort!
an errorHe made several errors on the report, and the boss told him to rewrite it.
your escapeThe bank robbers took £10,000 from the safe and then made their escape.
an exceptionUsually the children aren’t allowed to watch TV but I made an exception today since the weather was so horrible.
an excuseWhy was Lisa late? Did she make an excuse?
a faceThe child took a bite of the broccoli and made a face.
a fireWe put up our tent, made a fire, and had a hot drink.
a fool of yourselfYou shouldn’t sing in front of everyone! You’ll make a fool of yourself.
a fortuneLucy made a fortune when she sold her company. Now she doesn’t have to work.
friendsShe loved university and made lots of friends.
fun ofThe children love to make fun of the teacher,– but only when she’s not looking.
a fussIt’s okay! I’m fine, it’s just a cough. Don’t make a fuss!
an impressionJenny certainly made an impression last night! All my friends are asking about her.
a jokeThe interview was very tense at the beginning, but then John made a joke, and after that it was much more relaxed.
a journeyBecause of the snow, try not to make any journeys which are not absolutely essential.
a listFirst, I must make a list of all the things I need to do.
a lossTheir business made a loss the first year, but did much better after that.
loveThe hero and the heroine made love in the film.
a messWhat a mess you’ve made! Can’t you tidy up a bit?
a mistakeShe made so many mistakes in her essay that the teacher couldn’t understand it.
moneyJohn made a lot of money in his twenties and was able to retire at the age of 35.
a moveLook how late it is! Let’s make a move.
a noisePlease try not to make a noise when you come home, because I’ll be asleep.
an observationCould I make an observation? I don’t think some of our customers like the new adverts.
an offerShe made an offer on a house. She’s nervous because she’ll find out today if it has been accepted, and she really wants to buy that house.
a paymentHello? I’d like to make a credit card payment, please.
a phone callI’m going to go outside and make a phone call. It’s too noisy in here.
plansDavid is making plans to move to Paris.
a pointThe professor used lots of examples to make his point.
a predictionThe journalist made a prediction about the economy, but in the end it wasn’t correct.
a profitHis business made a profit from the beginning.
progressFinally, after being stuck in a traffic jam for an hour, we’re making some progress! We’ll arrive by 8pm.
a promiseI must study hard today. I made a promise to my mum that I wouldn’t fail any more exams.
a remarkJohn was upset because the boss made a negative remark about his work.
a reservationCould you call the restaurant and make a reservation for tonight?
a sceneSusie made a scene in the café when her order was wrong. She shouted at all the staff and demanded to speak to the manager.
a soundDon’t make a sound! We need to be completely quiet.
a speechThe bride’s father often makes a speech at her wedding.
a suggestionCould I make a suggestion? How about going out for dinner?
sureI don’t think I left the gate open, but I’m just going to go and make sure.
the bedCould you please make the bed before you leave the house? Otherwise it looks so messy with the duvet and the pillows everywhere.
time (=find time to do something)Everybody’s busy, but you need to make time to study. Otherwise you won’t be able to get a better job.
troubleThat employee is trying to make trouble. He is always telling the boss bad things about his colleagues.
a visitI’ll call you this afternoon.– I need to make a visit to my granny this morning.
your mind upDo you want chocolate or strawberry ice cream? Make your mind up quickly!
your wayAfter the film, John made his way to a café, where he had two cups of coffee and some cake.

And click here for ‘make’ or ‘do’ exercise 1.

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Test your grammar

10 question test

Read the sentences and choose the right option


1 / 10

1. Do you go to the zoo?

2 / 10

2. Do they have a dog or a cat?

3 / 10

3. I hate bullfighting.

4 / 10

4. I'd like a vegan burguer, please.

5 / 10

5. Shall we buy a dog?

6 / 10

6. My eyes were ...... red from crying that I had to stop watching.

7 / 10

7. I'm sorry - I never ......meat.

8 / 10

8. You must ...... the dog. It is against the law to leave dogs chained

9 / 10

9. What does Anna want to buy?

10 / 10

10. Where is he going?

Tu puntación es

The average score is 60%

0%



Read the text and choose the right word

Most humans believe 1 animals 2 things or instruments at 3 service. They think that humans can use, exploit, torture and kill 4 and that animals do not deserve care or attention. But today this idea is starting to change. More and more people 5 the world 6 differently. It is a wave that does not stop growing. More and more people know that animals are beings that 7 and suffer, and that is why we 8 respect and defend them. 9 people claim that animal 10 matter.

0%

1 / 10

➢1

2 / 10

➢2

3 / 10

➢3

4 / 10

➢4

5 / 10

➢5

6 / 10

➢6

7 / 10

➢7

8 / 10

➢8

9 / 10

➢9

10 / 10

➢10

Tu puntación es

The average score is 90%

0%





Try this oher one




Confusing words

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